Catalan studies began in English-speaking counuiesl in the 1920's, in Great Britain, with professors Ignasi González-Llubera, at Queen's University in Belfast (Northern Ireland), and Edgar Allison Peers, at the University of Liverpool. González-Llubera and Peers opened the doors of British university studies to Catalan literature and linguistics. While at Liverpool, Peers began the journal Bulletin of Hispanic -initially Spanish- Studies.
He was particularly interested in Ramon Llull, and he also published severa1 books on the Spanish Civil War, such as Catalonia Infelix (London, 1937). In 1948 he created the first lectureship in Catalan. The group of British scholars interested in Catalan grew, and others such as W.J. Entwistle and J.B. Trend became involved. Josep M. Batista i Roca, a Catalan exile who became a professor at Cambridge, coordinated everyone's efforts and the result was the founding of the Anglo-Catalan Society (ACS)*in 1954. Since then, the first intemational organization dedicated to Catalan studies holds a conference each year. Although the first meeting was held in Oxford in 1955, since then the majority have been held in London.
It goes without saying that the ACS played an important role in organizing the Third Intemational Conference on Catalan Language and Literature3, which was held in Cambridge in April, 1973. in addition, from its beginnings the ACS funded one of the prizes given at the "Jocs Florals de ,la Llengua Catalana" when they were held in exile. Currently, it funds a scholarship for young Catalan scholars who want to study at a British university. Regarding publications, the ACS edited the proceedings of the Cambridge conference4, and in 1977 organized a special issue on Catalan culture of the joumal Vida Hispanica (the joumal of the British Association of Spanish and Portuguese Teachers) as an introduction to Catalan culture for British Hispani~ts.i~n 1980, the ACS began publishing a series of monographs on Cataian topics: the Anglo-Catalan Society Occasional Publications (ACSOP).6 In addition to these activities, of course, the ACS also works toward incorporating Catalan studies into the curricula at British uni~ersities.I~n the past few years, with the help of the Generalitat de Catalunya's Comission to Promote the teaching of Catalan in Universities Outside Catalonia, new teaching assistantships have been funded at some universities, such as Salford-Manchesterand Oxford, and the chances are that it ail looks as if applications received from the University of London and other universities as well will be funded in the future.
THE UNITED STATES, CANADA, AND THE NORTH AMERICAN CATALAN SOCIETY
Catalan studies in North Arnerica, as one can well imagine, began later and on a much smaller scale, which makes the increase in interest in the past ten years al1 the more remarkable interest in Catalan began with Josephine de Boer, after her visit to Majorca in 1927. Some years later, in the 1940's, Joan Coromines became a professor at the University of Chicago, and he became part of a group of young scholars who for many years worked to awaken an interest in Catalan
at several Universities in the United States and Canada.
Their work, . combined with the efforts of Professor de Boer8,resulted in the first section on Catalan-Proven$al at the 1958 annual meeting of the Modem Language Association. This section, which in many ways can be considered as the forerunner of the North American Catalan Society, became much more active in the 1960's, when several European professors in the field, most of whom were Catalan, took jobs in the United States and Canada.
These professors created programs, and as a result their former students are now working on and publishing in Catalan studies. This increase in both teachers and scholars has been primarily in the fields of philology, linguistics, and literature, although other scientific fields have also been represented; the architect Josep Lluis Sert,
the doctors Folc Pi, Giner Sorolla, and Pi Sunyer, the scientist Joan Oró, historians such as Robert 1. Burns, Gabriel Jackson, and Thomas Bisson, the art historian George R. Collins and the philosopher Josep Ferrater Mora al1 come
to mind. In addition, prestigious figures such as Pau Casals, Joan Miró and Antoni Tapies, to name but a few, were al1 directly tied to Catalan culture in North American art circles. Al1 of this led Josep Roca-Pons, professor at Indiana University, and Albert Porqueres-Mayo, professor at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, to organize a conference with the hope of formallyestablishinganassociationforCatalanstudies.
The long-awaited First Colloquium on Catalan Studies in North America was held on March 30, 31, and April 1, 1978 at the University of Illinois. The conference directors were Professors Roca-Pons and Porqueras-Mayo, and the honorary president was Dr. Antoni M. Badia i Margarit, who at the time was the Chancellor of the University of Barcelona. The meeting was a great success: close to 100 people from five Canadian and twenty U.S universities attended, 38 papers were presented9, and the statutes of the NACS were approved1° The prirnary goal of the association is to promote Catalan culture and encourage the teaching of the Catalan language and its culture in U.S. and Canadian universitiesl1, and as such as the Champaign-Urbanameeting it was also agreed to hold future conferences and to publish the proceedings. Since then four conferences have been held: at the Yale University (April, 1979)lZ at the University of Toronto (April, 1982)13, in Washington, D.C. (end of May, 1984)14,and at the University of South Florida at Tampa (March, 1987)15 Currently, the NACS has over 300 members and will hold its sixth meeting in May, 1990 at the University of British Columbia inVancouver.
THE "CATALAN REVIEW"
The interest in Catalan studies in North America led the NACS at the 1984 Washington conference to consider a new challenge: starting an intemational journal of Catalan studies. Entitled The Catalan Review: International Journal of Catalan Culture, this multi-disciplinary, bilingual (Catalan and English) joumal appears twice a year and is open to al1 scholars interested in the language and its culture. The first issue appeared in June, 1986. In addition to articles, which are the bulk of the joumal, there are literary selections translated into English, bibliographic information, and information on cultural events held in Catalan-speaking areas. In addition to the regular issues, two special, monographic issues have appeared to date:
the first on the writings of J.V. Foix (1, l), and the second on the novelist Merci? Rodoreda (11, 2)16.
In addition to Great Britain, the United States and Canada, Catalan studies are slowly gaining ground in other English-speaking countries and in other continents. Specifically, 1 arn referring to the new tradition in Cataian studies (since the 1970's) at the La Trobe University in Bundoora (Victoria), Australia, which has expressed interest in creating an assistantshipinCatalan, and at the University of Auckland (New Zealand), which has aiso expressed interest in establishing an assistantship.
The Office of Language Policy of the "Generalitat de Catalunya" will soon publish the results of a survey on the current situation of Cataian studies around the world. There, the reader will be able to find additional, up-to-date information on Cataian studies in English-speaking countries.
CATALAN STUDIES IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES
August Bover i Font Universitat & Barcelona
1.-For relatively cment information on the spread of Catalan studies abroad and not only in English-speaking countries, see the papers published in "Estudis de la Llengua i Literatura Catalanes". V (= El Catala a Europa i Adrica) (1982) and my summary articlesLa Difurió Internacwnai dels Estudis Catalans,"Revue des Langues Romanes" (in press), and La Catalanística y su Difurión Internacional en la Actualidad, in the proceedings of the 1 Simposio Internacional Hispanica Posnaniensia-89, organized by A. Mickiewicz University in Poznán (Poland), which will soon appear as the third and fourth volumes of the journal "Hispanica Posnaniensia".
2.- See Robert Pring-Mili, TheAngfo-CatdanSociety. "Buiietin of Hispanic Studies". Liii (1976). 99-100, Alan Yates. L'Angfo-CatdanSociety, "Serra d'Or" (July-August 1978), 53-54. the booklet TheAnglo-Catalan Sociefy, 1954-1979 (Sheffield 1979). and Geoffrey J. Walker. Llngfo-Catah Society, 1954-1981. in "Estudis de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes". V (= El Cata16 a Europa i a A d r i c a ) (Montserrat 1982). 21-38.
3.- SeeFrancescValiverdÚ,Abril a Cambridge.UnEncontreInternacwnaiSobreLIengua i Literatura Catalanes, "Serra d'Or" (May 1973). 33-34.
4.- Actes del Tercer Col.loqui Internacional de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes. edited by R. B. Tate and Alan Yates (Oxford 1976).
5.- G. J. Walker. TheCatalanConnection.VidaHisphica, XXV, 2 (1977).
6.- To date five volumes have been published: 1) Salvador Giner, The Social Structure of Catalonia (Sheffield 1984). 2nd. ed.; 2) Joan Salvat-Papasseit, Selected Poems, edited by D. Keown and T. Owen (Sheffield 1982); 3) David Mackay, Modern Architecture in Barcelona (Sheffield 1985); 4) Forty Mo&rn Catalan Poems. Homage to Joan Gili, edited by Arthur Terxy (Sheffield 1987); and 5 ) Eliseu Trenc Baiiester and Alan Yates, Alexandre de Riquer (1856-1920). The British Connection in Catalan Modernism (Sheffield 1988). This year another volume wili appear: the translation of Salvador Espriu'sPrimera HLrtoria d'Esther.
7.- See Alan Yates. L'Ensenyament del Catalá a les Universitatsde la Gran Bretanya i Irlanda, in Actes del l e r . Symposium sobre I'Ensenyament del Catala a No-Catalamparlants (Vic 1982) and Max W. Wheeler - Alan Yates. Els Estudis Catalani a les Universitatsde les IIles Brithniques (Regne Unit i República &Irlanda). "Estudisde Llengua i Literatura Catalanes",V (= El Catalá a Europa i Amirica) (1982), 179-194.
8.- North American Catalan scholars dedicted a posthurnous volume in her honour: Catalan StudieslEstudis sobre el Catala. edited by Joseph Gulsoy and Josep M. Sola-Sol6 (Barcelona 1977).
9.- See Carme Rei-Granger and Jaume Martí-Olivella, I Col.loqui d'Estudis Catalam a Nord-Adrica, "Sena d'Or" (September 1978). 33-35, and the volume of conference papers: Estudis de Llengua, Literatura i Cultura Catalanes, edited by A. Porqueras-Mayo. Spurgeon Baldwin and Jaume Martí-Olivella(Montser~at1979).
10.- For information on the background of the NACS and its conferences, see A. Porqueras-Mayo, Els Estudis Catalaas i la North American Catalan Society (NACS), "Estudis de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes". W (= Miscel.kinia Antoni M. Badia i Margarit. 4 ) (1986). 231-243; Carme Rei-Granger and Jaume Marti-Olivella, 1 Col.loqui d'Esrudis Catalatu a Nord-Akrica. "Sena d'Or" (September 1978), 33-35; Josep Roca-Pons, La NACS (NorthAmerican Catalan Society), "Estudisde Llengua i Literaura Catalanes", XII, 43-54; Nathaniel B. Smith, La Catalanistica Nord-Americana ha "Sortit de 1Armariv, "Serra d'Or" (January 1985) 37-40; i August Bover i Font, The North American Catalan Society. "Catalonia culture", 8 (March 1988), 15. i North American CatalanSociety: Des6 Aniversari, "Revista de Cataiunya", 24 (Novernber 1988), 141-144.
11.- For information on the teaching of Cataian in North America, see Joseph Gulsoy, Els Estudis Catalans a Nord-Adrica, "Estudis de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes". V (= El Catala a Europa i a A d r i c a ) (1982). 246-267; N . B. Smith. La Catalarústica Nord-Americana ha "Sortit de Iürmari", "Serra d'Or" (January 1985), 37-40; A. Porqueras-Mayo, Els Estudis Catalans i la North American Catalan Sociefy (NACS), "Estudis de Llengua i Literatura Catalanes". XII (= Miscel.lhia Antoni M. Badia i Margarit, 4) (1986). 231-243; i Milton M. Azevedo. Lu Projeccib dels Estudis Catalans als Estats Units. "Butlleti del Col.legi Oficial de Doctors i Llicenciats", 62 (April 1988), 66-69.
12.- See Actes del Tercer Col.loqui d'Estudis Catalans a Nord-Amirica, edited by Manuel Duran, Albert Porqueras-Mayo and Josep Roca-Pons (Montserrat 1982).
13.- See Actes del Tercer Col.loqui d'Estudis Catalans a Nord-Amirica (Toronto. 1972) Estudis en Honor de Josep Roca-Pons, edited by Patricia Boehne. Josep Massot i Muntaner and Nathaniel B. Smith (Montserrat 1983).
14.- See Actes del Quart Col.loqui d'Estudis Catalansa Nord-Adrica (Washington,D.C., 1984) Estudis en Honor düntoni M. Badia i Margarit. edited by Nathaniel B. Srnith, Josep M. Solk-Solé, Mer& Vidal Tibbits and Josep Massot i Muntaner (Montsenat 1985).
15.- See Actes del Cinqué Col.loqui d'Estudis Catalans a Nord-Amirica (Tampa-St. Augustine. 1987), edited by Philip D. Rasico and Curt J. Wittiin (Montserrat 1988).
16.-VolumeIii(no. 1)issetto appearinJune. 1989.
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With Franco’s victory, many intellectuals and scholars of Catalan went into exile and set-up centres aimed at maintaining the culture in many points of the world. It was a new impulse for the study and learning of Catalan which continues to this day. In 2000, the Ramon Llull Institute was created with the aim of promoting the Catalan...